There is an earring I call a “sleeper” earring because you can sleep in it. It’s a lightweight small hoop. Its post hinges and snaps closed in a “v” lock. In other words you don’t need a backing on it.
The shank is the part of a ring that rests underneath the finger and meets the main part of the design on top. Shanks come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are important factors in how rings sit on the finger.
A setting is any open element on a piece of jewelry into which a gemstone will be set. Settings styles include prongs, bezels, channels, or any other method of holding a gem in place. Definitions on Specific Types of Settings Prong Setting Bezel Setting